7 wonders of the world pictures and information
The magnificent structure known as the Eiffel Tower, shaped by supports of iron, was built in France, for the 1889 Paris Exposition. Designers Maurice Keochlin and Emile Nouguier assisted the French structural engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel. This massive 984-foot structure, built to celebrate the world’s accomplishments in science and engineering, consists of two immense parts; a base composed of a platform resting on four separate supports and, above this a slender tower rising above a second platform to combine into a towering peak.
On March 31, 1889, a small group of dignitaries climbed the 1,792 steps to the top of the Eiffel Tower to hoist a huge French flag at the top. It was once said that the French flag flew on the highest flagpole in the world. Meanwhile, on the ground, tables were laid for a great celebration.
The tower was an enormous hit at the Paris Expo, attracting almost two million visitors in five months alone. During the exposition, visitors had to paid money to ascend up the tower.
|First Platform||2 franc|
|Second Platform||3 francs|
By the end of the year 1889, seventy-five percent of the total cost to build the tower had been recovered.
For over forty years, Eiffel’s creation remained the tallest in the world. The tower was also a European leader in aerodynamics on account of its precisely calculated curves and design. Withstanding weather and competition of the world, the Eiffel Tower still remains one of the most exquisite structures of the world.
The Statue was completed, by sculptor Frèdèric Bartoldi in France, as a centennial gift, in July, 1884 and arrived in New York Harbor in June of 1885 on board the French frigate “Isere” which transported the Statue of Liberty from France to the United States. In transit, the Statue was reduced to 350 individual pieces and packed in 214 crates. The Statue was re-assembled on her new pedestal in four months time. On October 28th 1886, the dedication of the Statue of Liberty took place in front of thousands of spectators. She was a centennial gift ten years late.
The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is the most enormous engineering and building project carried out by humans, especially for its time. From the Bo Hai gulf, off the Yellow Sea in the east, to an area deep in the Gansu province to the west, the Great Wall stretches over 1,500 miles (2, 400 kilometers).
It all started in the Ch’in dynasty which existed in the fourth century B.C. Emperor Shih Haung Ti had ruled over an empire now known as China. The Chinese civilization was one of the strongest in the world, and their only enemies lived in the steppe regions of the north. They were known as the Huns and the Mongols. This powerful emperor ordered the wall to be built in order to keep out the enemy attacks. The construction utilized the hard labor, and often lives of many laborers and prisoners. Families were separated when men were sent to work on the wall. Although the wall was expensive to build, workers were paid very little, and high taxes often took their toll on the members of the society.
The Great Wall of China made the country of China itself into a fortress. It is built out of a simple structure of bricks, stone, and dirt. Slabs of stone were used for the base and sides of the wall, and it is filled in with dirt, rocks, and rubble. It ranges in height from 15 to 30 feet (5 to 9 meters), with watch towers rising at regular intervals above it. Visitors can travel the 13 foot (4 meter) wide roadway on the top of the wall.
The city of Angkor, in northwestern Cambodia, was the capital of a kingdom known as the Khmer Empire, for over five- hundred years. In fact, the word “angkor” means capital. It became one of the most architecturally complex places in the world between the 9th and the 13th centuries, but when armies from Thailand captured the city 1431, it was abandoned by most of its citizens.
The largest component of this complex is known as Angkor Wat. The word “Wat” means monastery, and it was used as just that. This huge temple was built by King Suryavarman II, who decorated and built it in his Hindu beliefs. Dedicated to the Hindu Gods Shiva, Brahma, and Vishnu. It was a holy place for many. But soon in the ruling of King Jayavaraman VII decided that the Gods of Hinduism had failed him. Buddhism was prevalent in the construction of Angkor Thom, a new nearby capital. The Hindu decorations and deities were replaced by Buddhist carvings, statues, and other art, when it became a Buddhist shrine.
The entire city where Angkor Wat is located extends fifteen miles (24 kilometers) from east to west and eight miles (13 kilometers) north to south. Around the temples the terrain is landscaped by and intricate system of reservoirs, canals, and moats that were used for water control and irrigation. The whole system symbolized the Hindu thought of a central mountain, Mt. Meru, a dwelling place for the Gods. Angkor Wat’s five central towers represent the peaks of the holy mountain. The enormous moat surrounding the shrine suggests the oceans at the edge of the world. Crossing this moat includes crossing a 617-foot (188-meter) bridge.
From the early fifteenth century, when Angkor was completely abandoned, until the late nineteenth century, Angkor was kept intact by the Theravada Buddhist monks. It became one of the most important
The Panama Canal is a lake-and-lock type canal connecting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Isthmus of Panama, in Central America. Its length from the deep waters of the Atlantic to the deep Pacific is 51 miles (82 km). By using the canal (instead of going around Cape Horn), ships sailing between the coasts of the United States can shorten their voyage by about 8,000 nautical miles.
The main decision facing the engineers was whether to build a sea level or high-level, lake-and-lock canal. In 1897, the French engineer, Adolphe Godin de Lepinay proposed the creation of dams on the Chagres and Rio Grande Rivers, creating lakes that would be connected by a cut through the continental divide. Although early developers rejected this idea, it soon became the basis for the final draft in 1906 by John F. Stevens. Stevens was the chief engineer of the U.S. Isthmian Canal commission. U.S. construction of the canal had begun in 1904 but was stimulated after the U.S. congress adapted Stevens plan. The canal opened to traffic on August 15 1914. There has been much dispute between American and Panamanian sovereignty of the waterway, but the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 established that the Republic of Panama will take complete control of the canal in the year 2000.
Vessels are taken in by electric towing locomotives that operate on tracks on the lock walls. Usually six locomotives accompany one ship. Because the locks are duplicate, ships can pass in either direction simultaneously. Including the waiting period, ships require fifteen to twenty hours for passage. Common goods that are transported through the canal are crude oil and petroleum products, grains, coal, and coke.
The Panama Canal has greatly increased the efficiency of transportation of economic goods for the entire world.
Panama Canal Achievements:
In the year 1915, the first year of operation, about 5 million tons of cargo were shipped through the Panama Canal. In 1924, 27 million tons of cargo were carried through it. Between 1925 and 1941 the annual amount varied between 18 million and 31 million. There was a dip in total cargo during World War II, but since then nearly every year has shown an increase. The figure for 1950 was about 30 million tons. By the early 1960s the volume had almost doubled. The Panama canal has also accomplished many other things in its 74 years of presence.
- About 32 oceangoing vessels pass through the canal daily
- All ships passing through the canal pay an average of $28,000 for passage
- About 140 million tons of oceangoing commercial cargo are shipped through the canal in a single year
- Over 2.4 million tons of automobiles are moved through the canal every year, most of them being transported from Japan to the United States.
- Vessels using the canal come from more than 70 nations
The Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Leaning Tower of Pisa is the famous bell tower, in Italy, that began to lean in the year 1173. It was built to display the wealth of the people of Pisa. The people of Pisa were sailors who had conquered lands such as Jerusalem, Carthago, Ibiza, Mallorca, Africa, Belgium, Britannia, Norway, Spain, and Morocco. Their only real enemies were from the city of Florence. They needed the tower to show the people of Florence how well they were doing.
Architects realized that the tower was leaning when they had finished building one and one half meters of the third floor. The damage was irreversible so they halted construction until 1272 because war broke out against Florence. All of the money was spent on warfare and there was not much left for the tower. The lean was caused by the sandy and marshy soil that the tower was built on. During construction from 1272 till 1275, the tower continued to lean. In 1275 war with Florence broke out again. After this they began to construct the belfry, credit for which is often given to Tommaso, son of Andrea Pisano. The construction was believed to have been completed in 1350. In 1392, causing great humiliation, Pisa was sold to Florence and the residents were forced into slavery. They never managed to gain back the wealth that they had in the early years.
|Official Italian Name||Torre Pendente Di Pisa|
|Original Architect||Bonanno Pisano|
|Years of Construction||1173 – 1350|
|First Bells Added||1198|
|Height||55.863 meters, 185 feet, 8 stories|
|Direction of Lean||1173-1250: North and 1273-1999: South|
|Largest Bell||3.5 tons|
|Oldest Bell’s Name||Pasquarreccia|
|Address of Tower||Campo Dei Miracoli (The Field of Miracles) in Pisa, Italy|
|weight||14700 metric tons|
|Thickness of Walls at Base||8 feet|
A Shrine of love
Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful and costly tombs in the world. The Mughal Emperor Shahjahan ordered it built in memory of his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died in 1629A.D.
Islamic architecture, in its purest form, is epitomized by the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan’s Taj Mahal. Work started on this movement in 1634 continued for almost 22 years. Situated in the city of Agra in India, on the banks of the river Yamuna, the Taj is enclosed in a garden amongst fountains and ornamental trees.The walled complex includes two mosques and an imposing gateway. The tomb is encased in white marble which is decorated with flawless sculptures and inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy cut from precious gems. Below the dome in a dimly lit chamber lie the mortal remains of Shahjahan and beloved wife,queen Mumtaz Mahal, reminding the world of their undying love. It rests on a platform of red sandstone . At each corner of the platform stands a slender minaret (prayer tower). Each tower is 133 feet high . The building itself is 186 feet square. A dome covers the center of the building. It is 70 feet in diameter and 120 feet high.Passages from the Muslim holy book, Quern, decorate the outside. Built in charming environs, the Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful architectural work in the world. Without doubt, The Taj Mahal ranks as amongst the most perfect buildings in the world, flawlessly proportionate, built entirely out of marble. Intended to be a commemoration of the memory of Shahjahan’s beloved wife , in reality it is his gift to entire human race.